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International Heat Transfer Conference 16

ISSN: 2377-424X (online)
ISSN: 2377-4371 (flashdrive)

CFD STUDY OF COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF MULTIPLE HUGE OIL TANKS WITH EACH DIAMETER OF 20M AND 40M AND FIRE MITIGATION METHOD

Koyu Satoh
University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-370, Portugal

Domingos X. Viegas
University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-370, Portugal

Naian Liu
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

Congcong Ji
University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

Ran Tu
Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, China

DOI: 10.1615/IHTC16.cat.023660
pages 1645-1652


キーワード: Combustion, Convection, Oil tank fire, CFD simulation, Fire extinguish, Flammable fuel

要約

Large oil tanks with great amounts of flammable fuel have a potential to cause very dangerous fires. It is very difficult to control a big fire even in a single oil tank and multiple simultaneous fires in a large oil tank depot must be far more difficult to suppress. In addition, those multiple fires may merge into a big one and cause a disastrous fire whirl. To our knowledge there has been no detailed information of large-scale multiple oil tank fires, needed to settle on a firefighting strategy. First, we studied experimentally merging fires in a laboratory using small scale (3 × 3) square arrayed oil pans with each pan diameter of 0.1m and compared with the results by CFD simulations. Next, we investigated the fire merging behaviour of (3 × 3) large oil tank fires and the method to mitigate the fire disaster of multiple tank fires, varying the tank diameter (D) and the space distance between adjacent tanks (s). It was found that the average heat release rates produced in the (3 × 3) fires are far larger than the value of nine times of a single oil tank fire, since the grid cell sizes are too large. The total heat release rate reaches the maximum at s=0.5D to 0.7D for the (3 × 3) oil tanks with D=20m and 40m. In the real situation of large oil storage depots, the inter-tank distances are mostly distributed between s=0.5D and 1.0D. Therefore, an extremely disastrous fire may be produced due to the merged fires and a huge fire whirl formation, in such conditions. If the central fire in the (3 × 3) fires is successfully extinguished, it may effectively reduce up to 20% of the total heat release rate and may be able to avoid the generation of a huge fire whirl, while the effect of one corner fire extinguishment within four corners produces only about 12% reduction. The authors have proposed a possibility to mitigate the merging fire damages, using porous metal materials together with fire-extinguishing agents in an aerial firefighting.

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